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T98G Cell Line

T98G cells constitute a human glioblastoma cell line generally used in biomedical research. Particularly, these cells are utilized in brain cancer studies to investigate crucial cells and molecular factors contributing to it. Moreover, they help researchers screen and test new anti-cancer drugs that may aid in drug development.

This article will incorporate all the essential details about the T98G cell line that you'll require before commencing work with it, such as:

  1. General characteristics and origin of the T98G cell line
  2. Culturing information about T98G cell line
  3. T98G cell line: Advantages & disadvantages
  4. Applications of T98G cells
  5. Research Publications Featuring T98G Cells
  6. Resources for T98G Cells: Protocols, Videos, and More

1. General characteristics and origin of the T98G cell line

This section of the article will help you explore the fundamental characteristics of the T98G cell line. It will include cell line origin, morphology, size, and ploidy information. Moreover, it will comprehensively understand the following inquiries: What are T98G cells? What type of cell is T98G? Where did the T98G come from? What are the characteristics of the T98G cell line? What is glioblastoma cell line T98G U87?

  • T98G cell line was established by GH Stein. It is constituted by fibroblast-like cells that were derived from the brain tissue of a 61-year-old Caucasian male with glioblastoma multiforme [1].
  • T98G cells are non-tumorigenic; they do not cause tumours when injected into nude mice. However, they tend to proliferate with suitable anchorage in the cell culture.
  • These cells possess fibroblast cells-like morphology.
  • The glioblastoma cell line T98G represents hyperpentaploidy. The modal chromosome number varies between 128 to 132. Higher ploidies may exist in 1.39% of the cell population.

T98 Vs T98G

Both are human glioblastoma cell lines and share a similar origin. The only difference between these cell lines is the number of chromosomes. T98G possesses almost twice the number of chromosomes T98 has. Therefore, T98G is known as the polyploid variant of T98.

T98G Vs U87

U87 and T98G are both human glioblastoma cell lines used in brain cancer research. U87 exhibits a more aggressive phenotype compared to T98G GBM.

Microscopic exploration of an brain tissue section at 100x magnification revealing the intricate details of a glioma tumor.

2. Culturing information about T98G cell line

Culturing information regarding a cell line is crucial to know before you start your work with it. It will help you easily and conveniently handle the cell line in the laboratory. You should know: What is the doubling time for the T98G cell line? What growth media is best for T98G cells? What are T98G Growth characteristics? What is the seeding density of T98G cells? How do you freeze T98G cells?

Key Points for Culturing T98G Cells

Doubling Time:

The approximate doubling time of T98G cells is 40 hours. It may vary depending on culturing conditions.

Adherent or in Suspension:

T98G cells are adherent. They attach themselves to the bottom of culture vessels and make monolayers.

Split Ratio:

The T98G cells are sub-cultivated at a split ratio of 1:2 to 1:5. For this, cells are first washed with 1 X PBS buffer and then incubated with passaging solution (Accutase) for 8 to 10 minutes at ambient temperature. After incubation, detached cells are added to fresh growth medium and centrifuged. Then, the collected cell pellet is carefully resuspended, and cells are dispensed into a culture flask containing growth medium.

Growth Medium:

EMEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mM L-Glutamine, 2.2 g/L NaHCO3, and EBSS is used to culture T98G cells. Media should be replaced 3 to 4 times per week.

Growth Conditions:

T98G cells are maintained in a humidified incubator set at 37°C and connected to a CO2 supply.


Frozen cells can be stored at below -150°C or in the vapour phase of liquid nitrogen to protect the viability of cells for the longer term.

Freezing Process and Medium:

T98G cells are recommended to freeze in CM-1 or CM-ACF cell freezing media. For this,  a slow freezing process is suggested that allows only a 1 °C decrease in temperature per minute. This prevents cells from any shock and maintains their viability.

Thawing Process:

Frozen cells are gently thawed by placing them in a pre-warmed water bath at 37 degrees Celsius for 40 to 60 seconds. They are then resuspended in fresh growth media and transferred to a new flask. After 24 hours of incubation, the media is changed to eliminate freezing media components.

Biosafety Level:

T98G cultures are maintained in biosafety one laboratory.

Visualizing the fibroblast-like growth pattern of glioblastoma cell line T98G at 10x and 20x magnification.

3. T98G cell line: Advantages & disadvantages

T98G is a widely used human-derived glioblastoma cell line. It has several pros and cons that distinguish it from others. A few notable ones are discussed in this section of the article.


The advantages of the T98G cells are:

  • Well-characterized

    Well-established and well-characterized cell line. Extensively studied and documented in the literature.

  • In vitro model

    Represents characteristics of glioblastoma, the most aggressive brain tumor. A valuable tool for disease investigation, understanding biology, and treatment development.



The disadvantages associated with T98G cells are:

  • Heterogeneity

    Genetic heterogeneity in T98G cell population may lead to inconsistency in experimental outcomes and complicate data interpretation.


4. Applications of T98G cells

T98G cell line is a valuable tool used in cancer research. A few major research applications of the T98G cells are listed here:

  • Cancer research: The T98G cell line is a valuable tool for investigating the biology of glioblastoma tumours. These cells are mainly used to study the intricate molecular pathways underlying glioblastoma disease development and progression. Moreover, they are employed to identify genetic mutations that drive tumour growth and other cancer cell mechanisms. Yang Chen and colleagues worked on these cells and found that overexpression of miRNA-21 declines PDCD4 (Programmed cell death protein 4) levels in T98G cells. This leads to the inhibition of PDCD4-mediated T98G cell apoptosis. Thus, the study suggests miRNa-21 as a potential target for developing therapies [2]. Similar to this study, Fanqiang Kong and colleagues studied the role of microRNA-15a in T98G glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion. They found that miRNA-15a-5p promotes these cell processes by targeting cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) [3].
  • Drug Testing and Therapeutic Development: T98G serves as a great glioblastoma in vitro model for screening new drugs and providing a platform to evaluate the effectiveness of potential cancer therapies. Researchers also test a variety of compounds and therapies to identify and discover drug candidates with the most promising anti-glioblastoma properties. This leads to the developing of novel drugs and treatment strategies, offering hope for glioblastoma patients. Such a study investigated the anti-cancer potential of a natural compound called corilagin in the temozolomide temozolomide-resistant T98G GBM cell line. The study findings proposed that corilagin, in combination with temozolomide, induces higher levels of antiproliferative and antiapoptotic effects in cells [4].

5. Research Publications Featuring T98G Cells

The following are some interesting and frequently cited research publications on T98G, the glioblastoma cell line.

Chemotherapeutic effect of SR9009, a REV-ERB agonist, on the human glioblastoma T98G cells

This publication in ASN Neuro (2019) investigated the anti-cancer effects of a REV-ERB agonist called SR9009 on T98G glioblastoma cells.

Quercetin and sodium butyrate synergistically increase apoptosis in rat C6 and human T98G glioblastoma cells through inhibition of autophagy

This research article in the Neurochemical research (2019) proposed that sodium butyrate and quercetin synergistically inhibit protective autophagy in T98G cells and increase cell apoptosis.

RNA Sequencing in Hypoxia-Adapted T98G Glioblastoma Cells Provides Supportive Evidence for IRE1 as a Potential Therapeutic Target

This study in Genes (2023) subjected the T98G hypoxia-adapted cell line to RNA sequencing and proposed IRE1 (Inositol-requiring enzyme 1) as a promising therapeutic target.

MicroRNA-548c-3p inhibits T98G glioma cell proliferation and migration by downregulating c-Myb

This article was published in Oncology Letters (2017). The study investigated that  miRNA-548c-3p targets T98G oncogenes (c-Myb) to inhibit the proliferation and migration of T98G cells.

Chloroform extract of Tibetan herbal medicine Dracocephalum tanguticum Maxim. Inhibits proliferation of T98G glioblastoma cells by modulating Caspase-3 cleavage and expression of Bax and p21

This article in the Journal of Medicinal Plants Research (2011) proposed that Dracocephalum tanguticum chloroform extract exerts antiproliferative effects on T98G cells by modulating caspase-3, Bax, and P21 genes.

6. Resources for T98G Cells: Protocols, Videos, and More

The available resources featuring the T98G cell culturing and transfection protocols are mentioned here.

  • T98G transfection: This research article contains the protocol for T98G transfection. It briefly explains the method and required reagent.

The following links will greatly help you learn T98G cell culture protocol and make your working easy with it.

  • T98G cells: This website contains crucial information regarding T98G cell culture protocols, including subculturing and handling proliferative and cryopreserved cultures. Moreover, it will also help you learn the cell growth media, conditions, and doubling time.


  1. Haehl, E., Endothelial-cell induced radioresistance in glioblastoma. 2021, Universität Tübingen.
  2. Chen, Y., et al., MicroRNA-21 down-regulates the expression of tumor suppressor PDCD4 in human glioblastoma cell T98G. Cancer letters, 2008. 272(2): p. 197-205.
  3. Kong, F., et al., MicroRNA15a5p promotes the proliferation and invasion of T98G glioblastoma cells via targeting cell adhesion molecule 1. Oncology Letters, 2021. 21(2): p. 1-1.
  4. Milani, R., et al., Corilagin Induces High Levels of Apoptosis in the Temozolomide-Resistant T98G Glioma Cell Line. Oncol Res, 2018. 26(9): p. 1307-1315.


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